SONOLUMINESCENCE: How Bubbles Turn Sound into Light
S. J. Putterman and K. R. Weninger Physics Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Key Words energy focusing, nonlinear dynamics, complexity, hydrodynamics gas bubble, continuum mechanics, shock shape instabilities, chemical hydrodynamics
Sonoluminescence, the transduction of sound into light, is a phenomenon that pushes fluid mechanics beyond its limit. An initial state with long wavelength and low Mach number, such as is realized for a gas bubble driven by an audible sound field, spontaneously focuses the energy density so as to generate supersonic motion and a different phase of matter, from which are then emitted picosecond flashes of broad-band UV light. Although the most rational picture of sonoluminescence involves the creation of a ‘‘cold’’ dense plasma by an imploding shock wave, neither the imploding shock nor the plasma has been directly observed. Attempts to attack sonoluminescence from the perspective of continuum mechanics have led to interesting issues related to bubble shape oscillations, shock shape instabilities, and shock propagation through nonideal media, and chemical hydrodynamics. The limits of energy focusing that can be achieved from collapsing bubbles in the far-off equilibrium motion of fluids have yet to be determined either experimentally or theoretically.
Sonboluminescene is a type of Molecular Nuclear Fusion
1 H2O+EMR+So ->He2++O2-+E2+X-ray+L
The light and X-rays tell us we are not doing chemistry. As it the evolution of micro He bubbles. There is no souee of nuclear fission, so we are doing nuclear fusion. Nuclear fusion is 8 times as e nergetic as hyper-toxic nuclear fission from U.
I have gto to go out, so I will work on this document later.