Saturday, 29 August 2009

Lightening etc.

Carbon dates
Other people have published work on the emission of He, CH4, O, heat and gamma waves from green plants in the light[i]. So green plants do molecular nuclear fusion!
Growing bacteria and animal mitochondria[ii] also do molecular nuclear fusion! So life is fusion driven. This is why Carbon dating works, and also why it falls down.
Plants take in CO2, and convert it to CH4, as do peat bogs[iii]: Plus He, O and gamma waves. But as we have a see of neutrons, we get 13C, not 12C. This is nearly stable, so the ration of 12C to 13C tells us how long ago since the substance was alive.
Animals do molecular nuclear fusion in their mitochondria, so we see 13C in the carbohydrates they build into their body. So this decays at a fixed rate.[iv]
In a neutron free environment, this is a fixed ration[v]. So in the air, a Carbon date is fairly correct: It needs to be adjusted fro the background count. So areas near water falls or breaking waves are going to be wrong.
So molecular nuclear fusion means we need to adjust our dates. This is OK usually, until we get to the deep sea or peat bogs[vi].
With peat bogs, an item buried 50 years ago, comes up with a Carbon date of 500 years: This was anecdotal news from the radio a few years ago.
So the proof of molecular nuclear fusion comes from where we have datable stuff, which comes up with a wrong carbon date. It also suggests that to reprocess radioactive waste, we need to burry it in a peat bog.
But this environment is very hostile, and I doubt we could stop radioactive leakage. We might be able to set up units, where we pass corrosion resistant containers through boiling water.
We collect the steam, and keep bubbling it back through the water, and the boiling molecular nuclear fusion keeps the steam pressure up.
Radioactive life
Plants take in CO2[vii], combine it with H2O, and produce CH4, He, O, head and gamma waves.
CO2 + 6 H2O -> CH4 + He + O +emr + heat
Where emr is electromagnetic radiation. In the gamma range here.
In the process it sprays out a neutron. These bond with 12C to form 13C[viii]. So if we know the local background count, we can figure out the half life on 13C, and the ration of 12C to 13C will give us the date the plant matter was last alive.
But animals combine the carbohydrates, produced by bonding CH4 with H2O, with O2 from the air, to get at energy[ix] – and on the way also do molecular nuclear fusion!
CH5OHn + (n-1)O2 -> 13CO2 + nH2O + He +emr + heat
So Animals also produce 13C[x].
Nature produces gamma waves plus He and O, wherever it is doing molecular nuclear fusion. This O bonds with O2, to give O3.
So wherever life is doing molecular nuclear fusion, we get He and O3[xi]!
So locally, we can get increased background counts, which go along with higher levels of neutrons.
They bond with 13C, to form 14C[xii], which is very unstable! So we see an increased rate of decay into 12C. In the deep, at peat bogs, at water falls, and in fields in the country.
So molecular nuclear fusion explains why radio carbon dating works, but also says why we need to amend the dates we have given to objects![xiii]
Fast breeders
These work by taking enriched 239 /244Pu, and consume some of the U and water we feed into the plant, and end up with more 244Pu: This is why nuclear plants were designed. To make 244Pu.[xiv]
Power generation was a later add on[xv]. But my ideas have lead onto the fact that if we recirculate the steam, we do not need and U or Pu.
We produce a whiff of 3He and 16/18O. The 3He is lost to space[xvi], and the O is as enriched as that from plants[xvii], as they also do molecular nuclear fusion.
As the steam needs a low pressure end, we condense it on the cold end of a heat pump down to 115O C, and the hot end return 85% of the heat at 140 C. So we lose 3 C, by the turbine gives us back 20 C – the wonders of having studied all this in 1982![xviii]
I was told in 1984, that a fast breeder produces more 244Pu, than it was loaded with[xix]. As I said, it consumes the working fluid, and some of the mass of the metal oxide tube. So e=mc2, but only if we allow for the other mass consumed.
The reason PWRs won over AGRs[xx], was they do molecular nuclear fusion. Only none of us realized! Or that conventional power plants do molecular nuclear fusion.
While looking for a reference here, I found an article on carbon isotopes in photosynthesis.[xxi] As I could not find one earlier, I include it here. This is why carbon dates nearly work in plants.
We need to correct them for back ground radioactivity counts[xxii]. Radioactive isotopes decay faster, in high neutron environments. This is also why nuclear power missed the fact PWRs do molecular nuclear fusion, set off by metal fission rods. There are clean, safe ways we can do molecular nuclear fusion: See later.
For a personal power plant, my idea from 2004, of coupling a Carnot pump with a turbine, generates all the heat and power for a street. From water. With no CO2 or toxic death![xxiii]
I also find it so interesting, that photosynthesis is light induced molecular nuclear fusion. I have given a reference fro the gamma ray production by plants in the light above.
I am pleased to have found the reference to 13C and 14C, from photosynthesis, just above. Why has no biologists done work on this area. It is so important.
Molecular nuclear fusion is safe, clean and non polluting. And very, very cheap. Nuclear fission is toxic, dangerous, produces toxic waste, and is very dear. Dearer than burning gas at 2009 prices.[xxiv]
It is appropriate at this point to mention my idea from 2001, just before I left Sheffield. If we raise a boiler to a state of boiling it does boiling Molecular Nuclear Fusion.
So a fission reactor does nuclear fusion! But this is lost in the high levels of fission going on. We do more, at higher pressure.
We do yet more, if we have high levels of neutrons around. This is exactly what we have in a fast breeder reactor. See the section elsewhere on fast breeder technology.
We consume some of the water in the boiling Molecular Nuclear Fusion, so we may get more fissile material. But we convert some of the water to He and O, plus heat and gamma rays.
So we get back to my idea from 2001(sic). Rather than throw 90% of the heat away to the environment, we use one of Prof Zimmerman’s helical turbulence heat exchangers.[xxv]
This recovers 85% of the system heat[xxvi]. This is the boiler steam temperature plus 20 C, because the steam heats up through FCC Molecular Nuclear Fusion in the turbine room, despite us taking 10 C out as useful heat.
So for all these years, a conventional power station has been doing Molecular Nuclear Fusion.
So we can replace all metal oxide fission tubes, with fire tubes filled with the hot gas, from the hot end of the Carnot heat pump.[xxvii]
We actually split the Carnot steam, so we can boil off the water, but then high temperature Carnot tubes superheat the steam.[xxviii]
This latter point doe not apply for a personal power plant[xxix]. It is a better idea to generate power locally, and then no to have distribution losses or infrastructure to worry about.
But we will require a lot of plants!
Melt the ice
We have a chain of steam plasma tubes, and we anchor them on the edge of the ice sheets. They are attached to buoys, and occasionally we will need to reattach their telescopic anchor points.
So the tubes turn water into heat, with no power once fired up. Now we will melt the ice, so it will run back to the equator at 0 C.[xxx]
It doesn’t sit there as a block of cold in the sea water at 3 C, but it will run back towards the equator, picking up heat as it goes.
Exporting polar cold to the world. So we warm the Poles, and cool the equator. Suddenly the warm sea currents are not melt by a block of ice, but flows freely, taking solar heat to the cold lands.[xxxi]
By freeing up these heat flows, we even out the temperature around the Earth. We warm the Poles, and cool the hot lands. All by freeing up the flows of cold to flow back to the equator.[xxxii]
Molecular nuclear fusion cures the phantom science of Global Warming. And nature does it big time. In the air and seas.
Fluid turbulence
As just mentioned above, we get gamma radiation from ice skates. But this really is from liquid water slipping over solid water[xxxiii]. So we have load of H on H interactions, and this does molecular nuclear fusion. This creates heat, which melts the ice in front of the skate.
So really this is a sort of liquid water molecular nuclear fusion. We also see molecular nuclear fusion with other molecular hydrogen fluids (Like ammonia or hydrocarbons, or ethanol in a refinery). I couldn’t find a reference here, but I was told this at Sheffield University in 1983. So presumably the chemistry professors can help here.
Deep sea currents give off gamma radiation, heat, O and gamma radiation[xxxiv]. This is the source of all the ozone you can smell at the sea. The O bonds with O2, to give O3. Also at water falls we get the same high energy kinetic interactions.[xxxv]
My reference here notes that we get He and 18O from the turbulent flow of hydrocarbons, deep in the North sea.
Another thing we should observe here, is that deep sea oil forms from the methyl hydrate[xxxvi] formed by deep sea bacteria, taking in CO2 by osmosis. So fossil fuels area sink for CO2 in the air.
This system contiunes today, and lays down the white solid, CH5OH, as a white solid on the sea floor. When we got major tectonic adjustment at the end of the Jurassic, all this CH5OH went down to magma chambers, where in the presence of Pt metal, linked up to form the fossil fuels we are burning today.
Which is why all fossil oil carbon dates to 65 million years ago[xxxvii].
But the major form of molecular nuclear fusion we see on the Earth is in the deep sea. We also get it in the moist air.[xxxviii]
So all around us, nature is doing so much molecular nuclear fusion! When ever we are running a steam cycle, burning molecular hydrogen compound we are doing it![xxxix]
We just never realized! But as we boil a kettle, we are doing molecular nuclear fusion as the water boils. So this is low pressure turbulence. At very moderate temperatures. We also get light flashes, as my reference talks about.[xl]
Work on this by NASA started all this, and though the work was published in New Scientist, I can’t find the article. All you need to confirm this is a flask of boiling water, and a Geiger counter though. Failing that, radiation strips.
Dr MatZinger tried this, but could get it to work. So I told her to try a water boiler, which gives a stronger signal. And I have not heard back![xli]
The idea of molecular nuclear fusion seemed strange to me, but nature is doing it all around, and even in us! You blood gives off radiation as it circulates around your body, pumped by the heart.
Is very energetic, but science has never explained where the electric driving force comes from[xlii]. It is a result of two lots of molecular nuclear fusion!
It is not due to the knocking electrons off rain drops, because rain drops would also fix up free electrons. No net charge created.
When we get the heavy rain, we create a chaotic flow of water drops to the Earth. These collide, converting water into He and OH – hydroxyl molecular fragments.. The Os link up with O2s, and we get O3 – ozone.[1]
Meanwhile, the ά (alpha particles) – He2+ drift up the pressure gradient to space. The OH- (hydroxyl molecules) drifts down the gravity gradient to the Earth.[2]
So we get a positively charged cloud top, and negatively charged ground. All the molecular nuclear fusion results in warm moist air, with a lot of charged molecules in.
We get a down strike, as the absence of electrons (Holes) drifts down. Until we form a direct circuit of charged particles with the ground.
Then we get a massive up strike! This is so energetic; it sets off molecular nuclear fusion in the lightening bolt. The direct flow of electrons is so rapid, and the molecular nuclear fusion it sets off so strong, this is the energetic shrike.
A guy in America asked me how we do this in the laboratory. Simple, we set up a steam plasma in a glass tube. I was taught in 1983, that lightening strikes are a steam plasma through the free air.
We use a small current to set up the plasma, and then it turns water into heat. We actually do a mixed plasma of 2xH+ and O2-. The protons (H+) collide with electrons, and we form neutrons – as described above.[xliii]
We do a matter burn, and convert the water into heat!
This is why the air heats up in a thunder storm. Or the water at the base of a water fall is 20 C hotter than at the top[xliv]. This also goes on at the sea shore, which is thus no a healthy place to hang out!
Lightening, eruptions and earth quakes are all instances where nature does molecular nuclear fusion. And we have all had experience of them![xlv]
Closed steam cycle
The massive loss from a steam cycle is the cooling tower! Any idiot can see that – a 5 year old child sees that.
Your idea of 2001 of using a helical turbulence heat exchanger to replace a cooling tower was a bad one.
Here I am indebted to Clark MacFarlane, who in 1982, pointed out that half the heat we add to the steam is to superheat it – his father worked for NEI, which is now part of Siemens Power.[xlvi]
So we cool the spent steam on the cold end of a Carnot heat pump. We then pressurize half the Canot gas to a moderate pressure, and half to a high pressure.[xlvii]
We use the high pressure gas to superheat the steam. I advised using steam plasma tubes to add atomic nuclear fusion heat to the critical steam, to raise it to 800 C.[xlviii]
Now we don’t have steam and CO2, but pure steam, which is a lot denser than steam and CO2. So as we feed it through the Ti turbine, we will generate more power, and heat the steam by 25 C, not the present 20 C.
If we use steam plasma tubes, we can raise the steam to 1,200 C, so we need to look at ceramic turbine blades, as Nimonic would not cope.[xlix]
I would opt for a latticework of a high strength ceramic, and a filler of a different ceramic, as these would display better strength that solid turbine blades.[l]
A carbon fiber latice looks interesting. Here we would want a high temperature ceramic infill.
After the Carnot gas has supercharged the steam through an efficient heat exchanger[li], we add the still hot gas to add the Carnot gas which boils off the water. Obviously this needs careful work to sort out.[lii]
Global Warming was such stupid science. There was no historical backing for the fiction from nuclear power, why did lithe name hold academia transfixed fro 20 years? Was it just the money nuclear power gave them?[liii]
Global Warming is the Public Relations from nuclear power to get he plants: When they are a toxic, dangerous, expensive option: Gas power stations are cheaper, and burning gas does molecular nuclear fusion. Which is what plants in the light do.
If we recycle the heat of the spent steam, we will see the molecular nuclear fusion heat we are getting in the boiler room and turbine hall. Roughly 20 C in both places.
This is in excess of the 35 C the Carnot heat pump will lose us. So if we take off 8% of the power that we generate, we can loop the heat around, and burn no fossil fuels.
No CO2. We run off molecular nuclear fusion energy only! All the references to this section have been given above. This idea was from 2001, so why it has not been used I do not know.
No U or Pu, so no toxic death.

Stopping eruptions
I have sent this one, four times to my academic contacts! As yet with no response. Earth events, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are driven by geothermal steam. Geologists did not consider molecular nuclear fusion was going on through the natural world![liv]
After all atomic nuclear fusion required temperatures of over 10O9 million C, and more than 20 bar pressure. But molecular nuclear fusion goes off in the seas, at 3 C, and over 2 bars[lv]! Life is dcriven by MNFit on Earth
We know that eruptions are preceded by steam venting from the eruption area[lvi]. This does not release the pressure, it allows the geothermal water in the magma chamber to boil, and increase the pressure.
If the magma chamber has no pool of lava in, we get tectonic adjustment, so an Earthquake, rather than an eruption[lvii].
We also know that eruptions, like avalanches, give out gamma radiation! Here is the proof of molecular nuclear fusion! Nature does it big time. Also in breaking waves, or at a water fall.
Will doubted it, but nature does molecular nuclear fusion all around! As your heart beats, it does molecular nuclear fusion. As does the blood as it flows around your arteries.[lviii]
Annoyingly I was told this by an engineer who worked for BNFL. But little academic work has been done on this.
The way to stop Earth events,events is to use sonar on the ground around dormant volcanoes, or Earthquake zones.[lix]
As my reference shows, some such sonar work has been done. But they were not looking for magma chambers. Pity, it could save 100s of thousands of lives on Earth a year!
We are looking for the fluid filled magma chamber. Luckily as sound waves pass through bodies of water, they do molecular nuclear fusion! So show us aasas bright spots on the sonar trace.[lx]
The same thing happens with microwave, radar scans. Molecular nuclear fusion will occur in nature again will!.[lxi]
Once we have located the chamber, we drill down, and install a vent pipe. It must have a valve on, as we only release the pressure slowly.
Otherwise, we make the water boil, and we cause an Earthquake. If I had still been at Sheffield Universityon my PhD, this would all have come out in 2004.
Eruptions and Earth quakes are linked to the emission of gamma radiation, but so are heavy rain storms.[lxii]
Where ever nature does energetic stuff, it is doing molecular nuclear fusion. Ever since there were oceans over 10” deep, the seas have done molecular nuclear fusion. And before that the steam in the air did molecular nuclear fusion, like occurs on Venus today.
Jupiter’s red spot gives off radiation as it does atomic nuclear fusion. From the turbulent flow of mainly H gas.[lxiii]
In rain storms we have the turbulent flow of water drops. These do molecular nuclear fusion – this is the source of the gamma waves we see.
We form OH- molecules, which falls to the ground, carrying their negative charge with them. The He2+ alpha particles, drift to above the cloud. But we get high electric fields. So we get a chain of molecular nuclear fusion occurring, which forms a chain to the ground. Then we get the main strike, upwards, to return the e- to the positive holes.[lxiv]
This is the best proof of molecular nuclear fusion! Who has not marveled at a lightening storm! Or marveled at thunder claps, and the way the air warms up during such a storm.[lxv] This reference is from 1899.
In all that time, lightening has not been explained, until how. It is nature doing molecular nuclear fusion from rain drops.
Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, the warming felt from water falls, and lightening: All place nature is doing molecular nuclear fusion from water.
As covered above, you heart gets in on the act! So animal blood systems, and plants doing photosynthesis are other places nature does molecular nuclear fusion.
Lightening bolt
Lightening is one of the ways nature does molecular nuclear fusion. It is just the most exothermic, we have all witnessed. The average peak power output of a single lightning stroke is about a terawatt (1012 W) and the stroke lasts for around 30 microseconds.[lxvi]
The gentle knocking together of water drops should produce about 0.8 Watts. But the down stoke[lxvii] yields more (20 KW?). There has been not work published on the Internet about this subject. Probably because it is so much less than the power we get from a lightening strike.
The main lightening strike is via a steam plasma, upwards. It yields a massive amount of energy. No exact figure is published, but I guestimate it to be 50,000 times more power than lightening motive power.[lxviii] I then found the Wikipedia guess of 1.3 Terra Watts, but this is just a guess. It is more energy than we can measure.
So molecular nuclear fusion gives the lightening its initial driving force as rain drops do a bit of molecular nuclear fusion as they fall chaotically to Earth; and the main molecular nuclear fusion via a steam plasma; this gives the lightening bolt its power.[lxix]
So lightening does molecular nuclear fusion twice! And this is why we get O3[lxx], light[lxxi] and radiation[lxxii] from a lightening bold. Plus a load clap of thunder.[lxxiii]
A far better way is via a twin walled tube, in a bath of water. I told Prof. Zimmerman this 3 years ago. It gives engineers a simple way to turn water into heat.
If we use sufficient pressure, once started, it will not draw any current from the grid. Nature tends to produce endless power from the deep[lxxiv], which is all due to molecular nuclear fusion.
All around, and even within animal blood systems, nature is turning water into He, O, radiation and heat. We lose the He to space, and in time, free light in space forms H gas, and this our atmosphere gains.
It is not held by our weak gravity, but if we have a lightening strike, or naked flame, we turn O into H2O. This is kept around the Earth. So over time, biology does molecular nuclear fusion. It supports all life on Earth.
Plant photo blasts[lxxv] do it, as do animal, bacterial or fungal mitochondria. Plants take in CO2 and excrete O2; the latter two eat plant matter, and combine the O to form CO2: The gas of life.
In warm periods there are more plants taking in CO2, so free CO2 in the air falls. In an ice age it rises.[lxxvi]
The industrial revolution was driven by steam: But steam in turbulent flow does molecular nuclear fusion. So the industrial revolution was driven by molecular nuclear fusion.
(I will except the compressive steam cycle, which was driven by chemical processes. It lost out to the expansive steam cycle, which liberates 4 times as much energy, as it does nuclear fusion.[lxxvii])
So biology is full of nuclear fusion! It even describes how molecular nuclear fusion goes on in the deep seas at 3 C. So physics insistence that you require millions of degrees C, and high pressures is just wrong.[lxxviii]
Which his why CERN can’t do nuclear fusion. A beating animal heart, like you does! This is why you breathe out CH4 and He.[lxxix]
Google gave me a lot of hits for CH4, He and cancer – but I don’t have time to read the pieces. Certainly rump infections (Including cancer, heart disease, Lupus, Diabetes, MS …) should convert endogenous CO2 and H2O into H2 and CH4.
The work on Lupus shows that the raised levels of He are detectable (See later fro reference), if you have the condition. As rump infections use novel, and more exothermic biological molecular nuclear fusion than body cells, this is a whole new target for medicine.
If you give the antisense to the novel molecular nuclear fusion we see, the infected cells go necrotic, and the B cells make the active antibody to the condition, the antibody that is normally not made – and will cure the condition.
Usually you breathe out He and CH4. So does your compost heap![lxxx] The deep sea makes 3He and 17O, from H2O: This is the source of O3[lxxxi] with breaking waves and waterfalls – more molecular nuclear fusion!
There is medical work out there on using a steam plasma to sterilize medical equipment. It says that steam plasma makes gamma rays.
But frequency is linked to energy, and no chemical reaction is of itself, energetic enough. So if we see gamma rays or X-rays from chemical equations, we are seeing molecular nuclear fusion from water. Going on alongside the reaction.
Certainly a steam plasma could no be doing nuclear fusion: Not without seriously heavy water being fissioned, and steam plasmas go on from regular water.
The IAEA noted that H plasmas do nuclear fusion. The process that is meant to require millions of degrees C, and here happen below 800 C! Steam plasmas run at 280 C, so to see gamma rays, we have to be doing molecular nuclear fusion. Prof Zimmerman will confirm this
[i] Environmental chemistry By Peter O'Neill
[xxxiii] Blade for ice skate Jerome H. Lemelson
[xxxix] Radiation in enclosures: elliptic boundary value problem By Aristide Mbiock, Roman Weber
[lx] Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX (2008) full316. pdf

[lxxv] JSTOR: Functional Significance of Photoblastic Germination in ...
Academic Press, San Diego. Bliss, D. & Smith, H. (1985)

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